Selasa, 13 Januari 2009

The causes of flooding in indonesian


The most significant reason of the disaster is the high rate of rain, since the rainy season in Indonesia starts in December and ends in March. In 2007, the rain intensity reached its peak in February, with the greatest intensity towards the end of the month.


The combination of the increased loss of vegetation in the upper catchments of rivers that flow into the Jakarta region, and the lack of adequate flood prevention being constructed by either the national or city governments - has created a situation where floods created by heavy rainfall cannot be adequately diverted away from the Jakarta area.Eventually, water flowing into Jakarta overflows some of the city's flood control systems and causes devastation in these areas.


The flood affected 80 separate regions in and around Jakarta, and over 70,000 homes were flooded, resulting in the displacement of some 200,000 people, of which 5,729 are still to return by March 11th. Although the highest officially confirmed death toll is 54, there are reports that it is as high as 68. There was a high level of illness, with 1,066 patients treated by hospitals due to diarrhea and 329 due to dengue fever.The flood has caused Rp 8 trillion (US$879.12 million) in losses.A total of approximately 190,000 people have fallen ill due to flood-related illnesses.The nature of the flood in which it extends from riverbanks to surrounding areas has caused the lower-class communities, many of which live on the riverbanks themselves in wooden houses, to take the strongest impact of the flood.

Biogeochemistry and Biology of CO2 and pH Extremes

Among the different extreme environments on Earth, those varying in CO2 concentration pose a variety of challenges for different life forms. In this session, we would like to invite presentations dealing with field based and experimental studies on aquatic/sedimentary ecosystems and biogeochemical functioning under CO2 and pH extremes. How are CO2 concentrations and corresponding pH levels affecting the habitability of an ecosystem? What are threshold levels for changes in organism performance, community structure, biodiversity, and metabolic functioning? By which mechanisms can organisms adapt to or counteract the effect of CO2 and pH extremes? What are the peculiarities of carbon cycling and other biogeochemical processes in such extreme environments? One focus of the session will be how extreme CO2 and pH environments can serve as natural analogues, e.g. acidic CO2 vents for CO2 leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage in the terrestrial subsurface and/or deep-sea, or for different levels of ocean acidification; and high pH vents for unique carbonate habitats for microbial life formed by serpentinization.

Kamis, 08 Januari 2009

global warming

global warming is caused ice melt polar ice in the north because of the effect of greenhouse.
global warming must be prevented as early. we can do to save our earth is to do the things below:
1.don't use of energy in the earth a large-scale.
2.don't throw garbage any where
3.don't use tool is made from plastic materials
4.planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide vegetarian